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Rules of Meem Sakinah The Izhar Shafawi, Ikhfa, and Idghaam

Meem Saakin is one of the important tajweed rules that many Muslims are eager to learn.

Learning tajweed in general is important because it helps people improve their pronunciation of Arabic words and recite Qur’an in the same way it was revealed to prophet Mohammed, and avoid falling into Lahn (a deviation from the correct reciation)..Besides, learning tajweed help reciters beautify their voices.

For those reasons above, many Muslims search on the internet for tajweed rules. In previous posts, we’ve introduced you to such as Noon sakin and tanween rules, Idgham, Iqlab, and Qalqalah, In this article, we hope to simplify the rules of meem Sakinah and give you examples and exercises which surely help you put this rule into practice.

Without further due, let’s begin with the definition.

Meaning of Meem Sakinah

Meem Sakinah (consonant meem in English) is the letter meem with a Sukoon sign above it (with means it’s devoid of the three harakah (Dammah, kasra, or fatha or shaddah ).

Considering this definition, those four cases aren’t considered meem sakin

  • A meem that carries Haraka above it, such as أقامُوا
  • A meem with a shadda أُمَّهُ
  • A vowel meem resulting from the meeting of two consonant letters. (مَنِ الذي
  • A meem that carries a temporary sukoon due to stopping recitation.

Note: Meem sakin is pronounced by applying both of your lips tightly to each other. It may occur in nouns, verbs, and letters, and can come at the middle or end of a word.

Rules of Meem Saakin

it has three rules which are so easy to remember

1. Izhar Shafawi

2. Ikhfa Shafawi

3. Idghaam Shafawi

Thoughts on Idghaam Meem Saakin

The rule applies when a meem sakinah is followed by another meem. In this case, The reciter will merge the two meems and become one meem mushaddada with Ghunna that lasts for two counts.

It is Also known as Idgham Mithlain Sagheer, because the two letters share the same articulation point (Maharaj) and attributes, and the first letter is not voweled, while the second is voweled.

In the Uthmani mushaf, Al Idgham Ash Shafawi is indicated by the first meem being without a sign, and the second meem having a shadda on it.

Idgham Shafawi Examples in Quran

Those examples from the holy Quran show you how to pronounce meem saakinah with Idgham Shafawi . Read the examples then listen to the records of the reciter and notice how he applies this rule.

الَّذِي أَطْعَمَهُم مِّن جُوعٍ وَآمَنَهُم مِّنْ خَوْفٍ﴾ (قريش 4) 

إِنَّهَا عَلَيْهِم مُّؤْصَدَةٌ (الهمزة 8) 

وَاللَّهُ مِن وَرَائِهِم مُّحِيطٌ (البروج 20) 

أَلَا يَظُنُّ أُولَئِكَ أَنَّهُم مَّبْعُوثُونَ (المطففين 4) 

أَلَمْ نَخْلُقكُّم مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ (المرسلات 20) 

Ikhfa Meem Saakin (ikhfaa Shafawi)

ikhfaa  is a tajweed term that refers to a moderate state between Izhar and Idgham, and in which you when your pronounce meem.

It occurs when the Sakin meem is followed by one letter only ب Baa. In this case, the reciter pronounces meem by leaving a slight gap between his lips for producing Ghunnah ( nasal sound that remains for a duration of two counts.

The reason for ikhfa is that both ب and م share the same articulation point and attributes, so it’s so heavy to pronounce each of them clearly so the reciter tries to lighten the letter م a slight bit without concealing it ultimately.

Examples:  (فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُم) (تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ) (وَكَلْبُهُم بَاسِطٌ)

Ikhfa Shafawi Examples in Quran

Those examples from the holy Quran show you how to pronounce meem saakinah with Ikhafaa. Read the examples then listen to the records of the reciter and notice how he applies this rule.

وكَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ وَأَنتُمْ تُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْءَ ايَٰتُ ٱللَّهِ وَفِيكُمْ رَسُولُهُۥۗ وَمَ نيَعْتَصِم بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدْ هُدِى إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍ مستقيم (ال عمران،101)

 ترميهم بحجارة من سجيل (الفيل، 3)

إِنَّ رَبَّهُم بِهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّخَبِيرٌ  (العاديات، 11)

لَسْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِمُسَيْطِرٍ (الغاشية ،22)

فَبَشِّرْهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ (الانشقاق ، 24)

Al Izhaar Shafawi

Al Izhar Shafawi means to pronounce the letters that follow meem sakin with no Ghunna and this rule applies to all Arabic letters except Ba and meem.

It is called Shafawi because the meem is produced by applying lips tightly above each other.

Remember the letter Fa and waw are close to the meem in their articulation point, so be careful to recite both two letters separately and clearly when they follow meem sakin

For example: “أزكى لكم وأطهر”، “ولهم فيها

Izhar shafawi phrases in Quran

Those examples from the holy Quran show you how to pronounce meem saakinah with Izhar shafawi . Read the examples then listen to the records of the reciter and notice how he applies this rule.

فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ (الروم، 17)

 يَاأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ } [ البقرة:183

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَنُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَحْسَنَ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (العنكبوت، 7)

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ أَقَامُوا التَّوْرَاةَ وَالْإِنْجِيلَ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ لَأَكَلُوا مِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ وَمِنْ تَحْتِ أَرْجُلِهِمْ مِنْهُمْ أُمَّةٌ مُقْتَصِدَةٌ وَكَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ سَاءَ مَا يَعْمَلُون (المائدة، 66)

Exercises on  Meem Sakinah rules

Now it’s your role.

Listen to those records and focus you hearing to the bold world where meem sakin is highlighted. Try to figure our which rule the reciter follow in those verses. Read the answers afterward.

  • نُسَارِعُ لَهُمْ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ [المؤمنون:56] 
  • تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ (البقرة، 134)
  • فَاسْتَفْتِهِمْ أَهُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمْ مَنْ خَلَقْنَا [الصافات:*11
  • مَتَاعًا لَكُمْ وَلِأَنْعَامِكُمْ[عبس:32] 
  • إِنَّ هَٰذَا كَانَ لَكُمْ جَزَآءً وَكَانَ سَعْيُكُم مَّشْكُورًا (الإنسان ، 22)

1) IKhfaa, for meem sakin is followed by ب ( Ikhfaa letters)

2) Idghaam:  for meem sakin is followed by م

3)Izhar : for meem sakin is followed by أ

4)Izhar :  for meem sakin is followed by و

5) Idhgam : : for meem sakin is followed by م

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