Madd is among the important tajweed rules, In Arabic, it means prolongation (stretch) if the voice with the letter from the letters of Madd. This means to extend the pronunciation of three letters of madd, which are alif, ya, and waw.
Those three letters are pronounced through the depth of the mouth and called madd types, and it’s divided into main types.
In this article, you’ll learn the meaning of madd and its types so you can apply them perfectly when reciting the Quran.
Madd is an Arabic word that means an increase, but in terminology, it refers to a prolongation or elongation of the sound of only three madd letters: alif, waw, and yaa’ (ا ، و ، ي) only when they are sakin (there no harakat over them), And they come together at the word نُوحِيهَا).
For more clarification, read the following examples:
Madd appears clearly in all books, especially in the Holy Qur’an, and it has been given great importance due to its role in understanding the meanings of the Arabic language and clarifying the words, hence, helping in the interpretation of the verses of the Holy Quran.
There is an authentic Hadith that reports that Qatadah (may Allah be pleased with him) asked Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him), “How was the recitation (of the Qur’an) of the Prophet?” He replied, “It was characterized by the madd (lengthening) of certain sounds…” (Al-Bukhari).
They’re three letters for madd: alif, waw, and yaa. Those three letters are vowels (there is a sukoon over them) and they can come in the middle or the end of a word and but they don’t come at the beginning of it, and the letter that precedes the madd letter is called a “Mamdod”
Madd is divided into two main types: Asli (natural) and Far’iy (secondary)
It does not depend on a hamzah or sukoon, i.e. neither hamza nor sukun occurs after the letter of madd. Rather, it is sufficient for it to have one of the three letters of madd which are alif, waw, and yaa.
It is called a natural madd because a reciter of sound nature naturally lengthens it for only two harakahs, neither more nor less than this.
For example: قَالَ – أَمْثَالُكُمْ – أَعْمَالُهُمْ وَقَالُوا – لِإِيلافِ – الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ وَقِيْلَ – تُبْصِرُوْنَ – يُوْسُفُ – بُوْرِكَ – يُوْصِيْكُمُ – خَالِدِيْنَ
This madd has three conditions:
1)IMadd is fixed in the case you continue recitation or stopped. For example و in أتجادلُوني
2)Imadd is fixed in case you continue reciation and deleted in case you stopped.
For example, بيدهِ ملكوت, here if you continue recitation after بيدهِ, so you have to stretch the ha pronoun (ه) for two counts but if you stopped at بيده, there is no madd.
Another example: قال له صاحبُه وهو يحاورُه أكفرت, here if you continue recitation, so you have to stretch ha pronoun (ه) in له or يحاوره for two counts,
3) Madd is fixed in case you stopped and deleted in case you continue recitation
For example, when you stop recitation at (أحدا) (حكيما) (حسيبا), then you’ve to elongate madd for 2 counts but if you continue to the first verse, then madd is deleted.
This madd occurs due to two reasons: Hamza or sukoon and it has five types. Below we’ll clarify each of them with examples that help you understand the rule further.
It occurs when madd is preceded by the hamza. (ء) within the same word, but it should not be followed by either a hamzah or sukun.
alif in آمن. The origin of this word here is ءًأمن. the first hamza is Maftoha ( there is fatha over it) and the second is Sakin, so to facilitate the pronunciation, we turn the second hamza to madd that takes the same sign (fatha), so it becomes madd alif.
ya’ in إيمانًا: The origin of this word here is إئِمانًا. the first hamza is maksorah( there is kasra below it) and the second is Sakin, so to facilitate the pronunciation, we turn the second hamza to madd that takes the same sign (kasrah), so it becomes madd ya.
waw is in أوتي: The origin of this word here is أؤتي. the first hamza is madmoma ( there is damma over it) and the second is Sakin, so to facilitate the pronunciation, we turn the second hamza to madd that takes the same sign (Dummah), so it becomes madd waw.
Rule: It is permissible to either lengthen or shorten it. Yet when reciting according to Hafs Qiraa, you’ve to stretch madd for only two counts.
Note: For applying Madd Badal, it shouldn’t be followed by hamza or shadda. For example, Alif in ءامّين isn’t madd Badal because the letter following it (meem) is mushaddad. Also, alif in براءوا isn’t counted as madd Badal because it’s followed by hamza.
It occurs when the letter madd is followed by a hamza but both are disconnected, So you can see madd at the end of a word and hamza is the first letter in the second word.
It is called madd munfasil because the hamzah (ء– (which is the cause of the (far`i) madd – is disconnected from the letter of the (original) madd, each of them occurring in a separate word.
Madd alif in إنآ أنزلنه في ليلة القدر
Madd ya inربي أعلم , وفي أنفسكم
Madd waw in (قوا أنفسكم)
Rule: According to Hafs Qiraa, It’s permissible to shorten this madd to two counts or lengthen it to 4 or 5 counts.
This is when the hamzah ء comes after the letter madd in the same word., It’s called attached because hamzah, which is the cause of this madd, is connected to the letter of the (original) Madd in the same word.
Alif madd: السرائر, الملائكة, السماء, الدعاء يشاء
Ya madd: هنيئا, تَفِيءَ وجِيءَ
Waw madd: هَآؤُمُ, قُروءٍ, سوء
Rule: Scholars differ in determining the length of this madd. In general, it was not reported by any of them that he shortened this madd by more than two counts, and that is why it was called an obligatory Mudd. However, According to Hafs Qiraa, It is lengthened for about 4 or 5 counts
Note: Madd Muttasil Is similar to madd Badal in that both hamza and madd are found in a single word. However, they have two differences.
1) in madd Badal, hamza precedes madd, but in madd Muttasil Hamza follows madd…
2)Also, Madd Badal is permissible (جائز in Arabic) but madd Muttasil is obligatory.
There is an obvious rule that says you can’t stop reciting Quran at a vowel letter or begins with a Sakin letter. So, Mad`Arid Lil-Sukun occurs when you stop at the vowel letter followed madd or Leen letter, for example.
When you pause reciting Quran at the word ِالعالمين. Here the letter ن is a vowel because there is a kasra below it and before this letter, there is ي (madd letter).
Another example: is when you stop reciting Quran (or take a pause) in the word ِالقَوم… Here the letter م is a vowel because there is a kasra below it and there is و, the Leen letter before it. Note و is Leen a madd here because it’s followed by fatha.
Rule: It’s permissible to shorten this madd to two or four or six harakats, or lengthen it to four or six counts.
It occurs when the madd letter is followed by a sakin letter. And it’s called lazim because it’s obligatory for anyone to stretch it for 6 counts
and divided into four types:
When a madd letter is followed by a sakin letter (with no shadda) within a word
For example , اَرَآيْـــتَ – مَحْيَـــآيْ
When a madd letter is followed by a sakin letter (with shadda) within a word
For example الــضَّـــالْـّــــــــــيـن (Here, lam is mushadd and the origin of the word is الضاللين
Another examples: الـصَّــآخَّـــة – الـطَّـــآمَّـــة
Madd lazim light harafi
When one of the letters combined in this group (نقص عسلكم) is followed by another letter in the same group at the beginning of the surah.
For example اَلَر
Madd lazim light harafi
When one of the letters combined in this group (نقص عسلكم) is followed by another letter mashadd in the same group at the beginning of the surah.
For example اَلَمّ
It can be difficult to learn them all at once. It is important to take your time and learn each rule thoroughly before moving on to the next. You can find many resources online and in books that will help you learn the rules of Tajweed.
Once you have a good understanding of the basics, you can begin to apply them when reading the Quran. With practice, you will be able to read with proper Tajweed and improve your understanding of the Quran.
Hafizon Academy offers you a Noorani Qaida course that focuses on increasing your knowledge about tajweed rules and helps you recognize and apply them in your recitation for the holy book. If you want to subscribe to us, contact us here.