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Idgham Rules in Tajweed with Full Explanation

Tajweed refers to the rules for the correct pronunciation and recitation of the Holy Quran, including the sounds of the letters, attributes, Madd, tanween, and more.

Knowing tajweed rules will help you recite Quran perfectly without mistakes and in a very beautiful way.

Among tajweed rules, there are some related to noon sakina and tanween, which are Izhar, Iqlab, Idgham. To learn what Idgham is in Tajweed and its types in detail, continue reading this post.

The Meaning of Tajweed

Tajweed in the language is: “improving”, “precision”, and “perfection”, it is said… You make something good if you improve it and master it, and it’s the opposite of (badness).

Technically, tajweed means pronouncing each letter of the Qur’an from its articulation point (مخارج in Arabic) without changing. It means pronouncing letters correctly according to the rules of Tajweed, laid down by the Islamic scholars. And it is said: Tajweed means giving each letter its right and its due of the exits and attributes.

What Is Idgham in Tajweed?

Ingham in the Arabic language means to merge something into another. And in terminology, it means merging a constant letter into a vowel letter so that the two letters become one stressed letter- equals two.

Idgham in tajweed is applied in noon Sakin or Tanween, when they are preceded by any of those six letters ( ي، ر، م، ل، و، ن).

The Difference Between Noon Sakin and Tanween

1- The Noon sakin (static Noon) is an original letter of the word like منْ, and the tanween is an additional nun مlike غفورًا

2- The Noon sakin is fixed in the pronunciation and the writing, and the tanween is fixed in the pronunciation but not in writing ( as it can be tanween with Dumma غفورٌٌ, tanween with kasra غفورِِ, and tanween with fatha like غفورًا.

3- The noon sakin can be found is in the names, verbs, and letters, like من، ينمو، منتهى. But tanween can only be found in nouns, not in verbs or letters, except (لَيَكُونًا) in Surat Yusuf and (لَنَسْفَعًا) in Surat Al-Alaq. in the two cases, this tanween isn’t original but light noon used to emphasis the verb and called in Arabic نون التوكيد الخفيفة.

4- The consonant can be located in the middle of the word or at the end, but tanween is only located at the end.

Nun Sakinah Tanween
Original or Additional Always an Additional Nun
In nouns, verbs, or participles Only in nouns
In the middle or end of a word Only in the middle of a word
Pronounced & Written Pronounced as Nun but Not Written as Nun
Pronounced as Nun on stopping or joining Pronounced as Nun Only when joining

Idghaam Arabic Letters

There are the six letters that make up the word يرملون. They are ياء, راء, ميم,.نون , لم, واو

There are three types of Idghaam, which are

What Are Idgham Rules

When it comes to Quran recitation rules, this term means to merge. Idgham in Tajweed means joining a non-vowel with a vowel so that the two letters become one letter of the second type.. read more to know What Are Idgham Rules.

Idghaam Mutamaathilain is devidied into types

Al-Idghaam Al-kabeer:

occurs when a voweled letter precedes another voweled letter such that they become one letter with a shaddah on it.

قَالُواْ يَا أَبَانَا مَا لَكَ لاَ تَأْمَـنَّـا عَلَى يُوسُفَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَنَاصِحُونَ

The original word is تأمننا but the two letters are merged into تأمنّا

قَالَ أَتُحَاجُّونِّـي فِي اللّهِ وَقَدْ هَدَانِ

The original word is تحاجونني, but the two letters are merged into تحاجونى

Al-Idghaam Al Saghir

The meeting of a consonant letter with another vowel so that they become one stressed letter of the second gender. Like in this verse

فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّـجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُواْ مُهْتَدِينَ

Idghaam Mutamaathilain

when two letters similar in their shape, pronunciation, and traits, for example, meet together. One of them is consonant, and the other is a vowel.

  • So the first letter is blended into the second; hence the second letter takes a shaddah ()
  • This applies whether it is in one or two words (whether both letters fall into the same word, or one letter falls at the end of the first word, and the second letter falls into the start of the second word)

See this example

“فَلا يُسرِفْ فِي القَتلِ”

In this sentence, the letter ف in يسرف is similar to the letter ف in فى, so both letters are merged into one letter.

 مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ

اضرب بِّعصاك

Read more: Learn Noorani Qaida In 10 Simple Steps

Homogeneous Idghaam

If two letters come, the first is a consonant and the second is a vowel, and they are pronounced from the same articulation point but differ in their attributes, the first letter must be merged into the second.

يَلْهَث ذًّلِك

for both ث and ذ are emitted from the tip of the tongue.

{يا بُنَيَّ ارْكب مَّعنا}

Both أ and ى, which are called madd letters, are emitted from the tip of the tongue.

قَالَت طَّائِفَةٌ

قَد تَّعْلَمُوَن

ت , ط and د are pronounced from the same articulation point

Idghaam Mutaqaaribain (near, close)

This Idghaam occurs when two letters have different articulation points. However, they are close together (whereas the previous shared the same makhaarij.

قُل رَّبِ

بَل رَّفَعَهُ

Ingham Types ( Noon sakin )

There are two types of Idgham : With Gunna, and without Gunna.

Merging – Idgham- with Gunna

When noon sakin or tanween is followed by any of those four letters: ي، ن، م، و., Noon Sakin or tanween isn’t recited, but the reciter stresses the letter after ( pronounces it as if there is shadda on it)

Example:

  • (ن + ى ):

{إِنْ يَرَوْا} ، {فِئَةٌ يَنصُرُونَهُ}

and they are read like:

 فِئَتيَنْصرونه and إيَروا

(ن + و):

{مِنْ وَالٍ}، {إِيمَانًا وَهُمْ}

and they are read like: “

مِوَّال “،” إيمانَوَّهم”

(ن + م):

{مِنْ مَاءٍ}، {صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا},

and they are read like

 مِمَّاء ” ، ” صراطمّسْقيماً “.

( ن + ن):

  {إِنْ نَحْنُ}، {مَلِكًا نُقَاتِلْ},

and they are read like

 إنَّحن”، “مَلِكنُّقاتل”.

  • Note: Ingham occurs when in two separate words, and it doesn’t occur if noon sakin is followed by any of those previously mentioned letters in one word, and that doesn’t occur in the Quran except in four words: {دُنْيا}، {قنْوان} ، {بُنْيان}، {صِنْوان}.

Exceptions are made from this rule are

  • يس * وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ﴾ (يس 1-2) )
  • ن وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ﴾ (القلم 1)﴿

Merging – Idgham- without Gunna

It occurs when Noon sakin or tanween is followed by ل or ر.

  • (ن + ل) : {أَنْ لَوْ} {أنْداداً لِّيُضِلُّوا}, and they are recited ” الّو “, ” أندادَ لِّيضلوا “.
  • (ن + ر ): {مِنْ رَب} {بشرًا رسولاً}, and they are recited  مِرَّب ” بَشَرَ رَّسولاً

Idghaam Examples from The Holy Quran

Here are many examples that can explain the rules further. Try to guess the type of Idghaam and the reason why you chose it then read the explanation

ExampleTypeExplanation
خيرًا يره Idghaam with GunnaTanween is followed by ى
شىءِِ وكيلIdghaam with Gunnatanween is followe by و
خير من Idghaam with GunnaNoon sakin is followed by م
ولن نشركIdghaam with GunnaNoon sakin is followed by ن
مِّن لَّبَنٍIdghaam without GunnaNoon sakin is followed by ل
وَقِيلَ مَنْ رَاقٍ)Idghaam without GunnaNoon sakin is followed by ر
غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌIdghaam without GunnaTanween is followed by ر
 قَيِّمًا لِيُنذِرَIdghaam without GunnaTanween is followed by ل

Conclusion

Idghaam is one of the essential must-to-know rules in tajweed. It adds a tremendous tone to recitation. In this article, you’ve learned much about Idghaam meaning, types, and letters with many examples from Quran.

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